Emigration – The Illustrated London News – 1850


The Illustrated London News – 1850

THE great tide of Emigration flows steadily westward.  The principle emigrants are Irish peasants and labourers.  It is calculated that at least four out of every five persons who leave the shores of the old country to try their fortunes in the new, are Irish.  Since the fatal years of the potato famine and the cholera, the annual numbers of emigrants have gone on increasing, until they have become so great as to suggest the idea, and almost justify the belief, of a graduate depopulation of Ireland.  The colonies of Great Britain offer powerful attractions to the great bulk of the English and Scottish emigrants who forsake their native land to make homes in the wilderness.  But the Irish emigration flows with full force upon the United States.  Though many of the Irish emigrants are, doubtless, persons of small means, who have been hoarding and saving for years, and living in rags and squalor, in order to amass sufficient money to carry themselves and families across the Atlantic, and to beg their way to the western states, where they may “squat” or purchase cheap lands, the great bulk appear to be people of the most destitute class, who go to join their friends and relatives, previously established in America.  Large sums of money reach this country annually from the United States.  Through Liverpool houses alone, near upon a million sterling, in small drafts, varying from £2 to £3 to £10 each, are annually forwarded from America, for poor persons in Ireland, to enable them to emigrate; and the passage-money of many thousands, in addition, is paid in New York.  Before the fatal year 1847, the emigration was very considerable, but since that time, it has very rapidly increased.  The following document, issued on the authority of her Majesty’s Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners, show the progressive increase in the numbers of British subjects who have annually quitted our shores as emigrants, from 1825 to January 1st, 1850:

EMIGRATION FROM THE UNITED KINGDOM
DURING THE TWENTY-FIVE YEARS,
FROM 1825 TO 1849 INCLUSIVE

 

Years

North
American
Colonies

United
States of
America

Australian
Colonies and
New Zealand

All
Other
Places

 

Total

1825

8,741

5,551

485

114

14,891

1826

12,818

7,063

903

116

20,900

1827

12,648

14,526

715

114

28,003

1828

12,084

12,817

1,056

135

26,092

1829

13,307

15,678

2,016

197

31,198

1830

30,574

24,887

1,242

204

56,907

1831

58,067

23,418

1,561

114

83,160

1832

66,339

32,872

3,733

196

103,140

1833

28,808

29,109

4,093

517

62,527

1834

40,060

33,074

2,800

288

76,222

1835

15,573

26,720

1,860

325

44,478

1836

34,226

37,774

3,124

293

75,417

1837

29,884

36,770

5,054

326

72,034

1838

4,577

14,332

14,021

292

33,222

1839

12,658

33,536

15,786

227

62,207

1840

32,293

40,642

15,850

1,958

90,743

1841

38,164

45,017

32,625

2,786

118,592

1842

54,123

63,852

8,534

1,835

128,344

1843

23,518

28,335

3,478

1,881

57,212

1844

22,924

43,660

2,229

1,873

70,686

1845

31,803

58,538

830

2,330

93,501

1846

43,439

82,239

2,347

1,826

129,851

1847

109,680

142,154

4,949

1,487

258,270

1848

31,065

188,233

23,904

4,887

248,089

1849

41,367

219,450

32,091

6,590

299,498

Total

808,740

1,260,247

185,286

30,911

2,285,184

Average Annual Emigration from the United Kingdom for the last twenty-five years:  91,407


Irish Emigration to the United States of America

These figures do not include Irishmen entering the United States from Great Britain who were normally counted as “British”, nor does it count those whoentered (legally or illegally) via Canada.

Y = YEAR                   I = IMMIGRATION

Y

I

Y

I

Y

I

Y

I

1820

3,614

1860

52,103

1900

41,848

1940

839

1821

1,518

1861

28,209

1901

35,535

1941

272

1822

2,267

1862

33,521

1902

29,138

1942

83

1823

1,908

1863

94,477

1903

35,310

1943

165

1824

2,345

1864

94,368

1904

36,142

1944

112

1825

4,826

1865

82,085

1905

52,945

1945

427

1826

4,821

1866

86,594

1906

34,995

1946

1,816

1827

9,772

1867

79,571

1907

34,530

1947

2,574

1828

7,861

1868

57,662

1908

30,556

1948

7,534

1829

9,995

1869

66,467

1909

25,033

1949

8,678

1830

12,765

1870

67,891

1910

29,855

1950

5,842

1831

13,598

1871

65,591

1911

29,112

1951

3,144

1832

15,092

1872

66,752

1912

25,879

1952

3,526

1833

14,177

1873

75,536

1913

27,876

1953

4,304

1834

16,928

1874

48,136

1914

24,688

1954

4,655

1835

13,307

1875

31,433

1915

14,185

1955

5,222

1836

15,000

1876

16,432

1916

8,639

1956

5,607

1837

22,089

1877

13,991

1917

5,406

1957

8,227

1838

8,149

1878

18,602

1918

331

1958

9,134

1839

20,790

1879

30,058

1919

474

1959

6,595

1840

25,957

1880

83,018

1920

9,591

1960

6,918

1841

36,428

1881

67,339

1921

28,435

1961

5,738

1842

49,920

1882

68,300

1922

10,579

1962

5,118

1843

23,597

1883

82,849

1923

15,740

1963

5,000

1844

37,569

1884

59,204

1924

17,111

1964

5,200

1845

50,207

1885

50,657

1925

26,650

1965

5,463

1846

68,023

1886

52,858

1926

24,897

1966

4,700

1847

118,120

1887

69,084

1927

28,545

1967

1,901

1848

151,003

1888

66,306

1928

25,268

1968

2,268

1849

180,189

1889

60,502

1929

19,921

1969

1,989

1850

184,351

1890

52,110

1930

23,445

1970

1,562

1851

219,232

1891

53,438

1931

7,305

1971 – 1980

1852

195,801

1892

48,966

1932

539

11,600

1853

156,970

1893

42,122

1933

338

Irish immigrants

1854

11,095

1894

39,597

1934

443

arrived in the U.S.

1855

57,164

1895

52,027

1935

454

1856

58,777

1896

39,952

1936

444

1857

66,080

1897

32,822

1937

531

1858

31,498

1898

30,878

1938

1,085

1859

41,180

1899

38,631

1939

1,189

Counties of Irish Emigration

Where did they come from?  During the period 1856 through 1910, the following ten counties in Ireland had the highest rate of emigration:

1.         Kerry                                       6.         Galway
2.         Cork                                        7.         Limerick
3.         Clare                                        8.         Mayo
4.         Longford                                  9.         Tipperary
5.         Leitrim                                      10.       Cavan

The county of Dublin has had the lowest rate of emigration.

The Irish constituted 42.3% of all immigrants from 1820 through 1850, and 35.2% of all immigrants between 1851 and 1860.  Thereafter, the percentages declined continuously:

1861-1870                   18.8%
1871-1880                   15.5%
1881-1890                   12.5%
1891-1900                   10.6%

and

1971-1980                   0.3%